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Since the development of pearl culture technology, the black pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera found in Tahiti and many other Pacific islands including the Cook Islands and Fiji are being extensively used for producing cultured pearls.

The rarity of the black cultured pearl is now a "comparative" issue. The black cultured pearl is rare when compared to Chinese freshwater cultured pearls, and Japanese and Chinese akoya cultured pearls, and is more valuable than these pearls.

However, it is more abundant than the South Sea pearl, which is more valuable than the black cultured pearl.

This is simply because the black pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is far more abundant than the elusive, rare, and larger south sea pearl oyster Pinctada maxima , which cannot be found in lagoons, but which must be dived for in a rare number of deep ocean habitats or grown in hatcheries.

Black pearls are very rarely black: they are usually shades of green, purple, aubergine, blue, grey, silver or peacock a mix of several shades, like a peacock's feather.

In the absence of an official definition for the pearl from the black oyster, these pearls are usually referred to as "black pearls". A farm in the Gulf of California , Mexico, is culturing pearls from the black lipped Pinctada mazatlanica oysters and the rainbow lipped Pteria sterna oysters.

Biologically speaking, under the right set of circumstances, almost any shelled mollusk can produce some kind of pearl. However, most of these molluskan pearls have no luster or iridescence.

The great majority of mollusk species produce pearls which are not attractive, and are sometimes not even very durable, such that they usually have no value at all, except perhaps to a scientist or collector, or as a curiosity.

These objects used to be referred to as "calcareous concretions" by some gemologists, even though a malacologist would still consider them to be pearls.

Valueless pearls of this type are sometimes found in edible mussels , edible oysters , escargot snails, and so on.

The GIA and CIBJO now simply use the term 'pearl' or, where appropriate, the more descriptive term 'non-nacreous pearl' when referring to such items [24] [25] and, under Federal Trade Commission rules, various mollusk pearls may be referred to as 'pearls', without qualification.

A few species produce pearls that can be of interest as gemstones. These species include the bailer shell Melo , the giant clam Tridacna , various scallop species, Pen shells Pinna , and the Haliotis iris species of abalone.

Pearls of abalone, or paua , are mabe pearls, or blister pearls, unique to New Zealand waters and are commonly referred to as 'blue pearls'.

They are admired for their incredible luster and naturally bright vibrant colors that are often compared to opal. Another example is the conch pearl sometimes referred to simply as the 'pink pearl' , which is found very rarely growing between the mantle and the shell of the queen conch or pink conch, Strombus gigas , a large sea snail or marine gastropod from the Caribbean Sea.

These pearls, which are often pink in color, are a by-product of the conch fishing industry, and the best of them display a shimmering optical effect related to chatoyance known as 'flame structure'.

Somewhat similar gastropod pearls, this time more orange in hue, are again very rarely found in the horse conch Triplofusus papillosus.

The second largest pearl known was found in the Philippines in and is known as the Pearl of Lao Tzu.

It is a naturally occurring, non-nacreous, calcareous concretion pearl from a giant clam. Because it did not grow in a pearl oyster it is not pearly; instead the surface is glossy like porcelain.

The largest known pearl also from a giant clam is the Pearl of Puerto , also found in the Philippines by a fisherman from Puerto Princesa , Palawan Island.

The ancient chronicle Mahavamsa mentions the thriving pearl industry in the port of Oruwella in the Gulf of Mannar in Sri Lanka. It also records that eight varieties of pearls accompanied Prince Vijaya 's embassy to the Pandyan king as well as king Devanampiya Tissa 's embassy to Emperor Ashoka.

For thousands of years, seawater pearls were retrieved by divers in the Indian Ocean in areas such as the Persian Gulf , the Red Sea and the Gulf of Mannar.

Margarita pearls are extremely difficult to find today and are known for their unique yellowish color. Before the beginning of the 20th century, pearl hunting was the most common way of harvesting pearls.

Divers manually pulled oysters from ocean floors and river bottoms and checked them individually for pearls.

Not all mussels and oysters produce pearls. In a haul of three tons, only three or four oysters will produce perfect pearls. Pearls were one of the attractions which drew Julius Caesar to Britain.

Pearling was banned in the U. Today, the cultured pearls on the market can be divided into two categories. The first category covers the beaded cultured pearls, including akoya, South Sea and Tahiti.

These pearls are gonad grown, and usually one pearl is grown at a time. This limits the number of pearls at a harvest period.

The pearls are usually harvested after one year for akoya, 2—4 years for Tahitian and South Sea, and 2—7 years for freshwater. This perliculture process was first developed by the British biologist William Saville-Kent who passed the information along to Tatsuhei Mise and Tokichi Nishikawa from Japan.

The second category includes the non-beaded freshwater cultured pearls, like the Biwa or Chinese pearls. As they grow in the mantle, where on each wing up to 25 grafts can be implanted, these pearls are much more frequent and saturate the market completely.

An impressive improvement in quality has taken place over ten years when the former rice-grain-shaped pebbles are compared with the near round pearls of today.

Later, large near perfect round bead nucleated pearls up to 15mm in diameter have been produced with metallic luster.

The nucleus bead in a beaded cultured pearl is generally a polished sphere made from freshwater mussel shell. Along with a small piece of mantle tissue from another mollusk donor shell to serve as a catalyst for the pearl sac, it is surgically implanted into the gonad reproductive organ of a saltwater mollusk.

In freshwater perliculture, only the piece of tissue is used in most cases, and is inserted into the fleshy mantle of the host mussel.

South Sea and Tahitian pearl oysters, also known as Pinctada maxima and Pinctada margaritifera , which survive the subsequent surgery to remove the finished pearl, are often implanted with a new, larger beads as part of the same procedure and then returned to the water for another 2—3 years of growth.

Despite the common misperception, Mikimoto did not discover the process of pearl culture. Nishikawa was granted the patent in , and married the daughter of Mikimoto.

Mikimoto was able to use Nishikawa's technology. After the patent was granted in , the technology was immediately commercially applied to akoya pearl oysters in Japan in Mise's brother was the first to produce a commercial crop of pearls in the akoya oyster.

Mitsubishi's Baron Iwasaki immediately applied the technology to the south sea pearl oyster in in the Philippines, and later in Buton, and Palau.

Today, a hybrid mollusk is used in both Japan and China in the production of akoya pearls. Cultured Pearls were sold in cans for the export market.

These were packed in Japan by the I. Mitsubishi commenced pearl culture with the South Sea pearl oyster in , as soon as the technology patent was commercialized.

By this project was showing signs of success, but was upset by the death of Tatsuhei Mise. Although the project was recommenced after Tatsuhei's death, the project was discontinued at the beginning of WWII before significant productions of pearls were achieved.

Japanese companies were involved in all projects using technicians from the original Mitsubishi South Sea pre-war projects. Kuri Bay is now the location of one of the largest and most well-known pearl farms owned by Paspaley , the biggest producer of South Sea pearls in the world.

In , China overtook Japan in akoya pearl production. These pearls are then processed often simply matched and sorted , relabeled as product of Japan, and exported.

In the past two decades, cultured pearls have been produced using larger oysters in the south Pacific and Indian Ocean.

The largest pearl oyster is the Pinctada maxima , which is roughly the size of a dinner plate. South Sea pearls are characterized by their large size and warm luster.

In , pearl farmers began growing cultured freshwater pearls using the pearl mussels native to Lake Biwa. This lake, the largest and most ancient in Japan, lies near the city of Kyoto.

The extensive and successful use of the Biwa Pearl Mussel is reflected in the name Biwa pearls , a phrase which was at one time nearly synonymous with freshwater pearls in general.

Since the time of peak production in , when Biwa pearl farmers produced six tons of cultured pearls, pollution has caused the virtual extinction of the industry.

Japanese pearl farmers recently [ when? This industry has also nearly ceased production, due to pollution. Currently, the Belpearl company based out of Kobe, Japan continues to purchase the remaining Kasumiga-ura pearls.

Japanese pearl producers also invested in producing cultured pearls with freshwater mussels in the region of Shanghai , China.

China has since become the world's largest producer of freshwater pearls, producing more than 1, metric tons per year in addition to metric measurements, Japanese units of measurement such as the kan and momme are sometimes encountered in the pearl industry.

Led by pearl pioneer John Latendresse and his wife Chessy, the United States began farming cultured freshwater pearls in the mids. National Geographic magazine introduced the American cultured pearl as a commercial product in their August issue.

The Tennessee pearl farm has emerged as a tourist destination in recent years, but commercial production of freshwater pearls has ceased.

For many cultured pearl dealers and wholesalers, the preferred weight measure used for loose pearls and pearl strands is the momme.

Momme is a weight measure used by the Japanese for centuries. Today, momme weight is still the standard unit of measure used by most pearl dealers to communicate with pearl producers and wholesalers.

Reluctant to give up tradition, the Japanese government formalized the kan measure in as being exactly 3.

In the United States, during the 19th and 20th centuries, through trade with Japan in silk cloth the momme became a unit indicating the quality of silk cloth.

Though millimeter size range is typically the first factor in determining a cultured pearl necklace's value, the momme weight of pearl necklace will allow the buyer to quickly determine if the necklace is properly proportioned.

This is especially true when comparing the larger south sea and Tahitian pearl necklaces. The value of the pearls in jewelry is determined by a combination of the luster, color, size, lack of surface flaw and symmetry that are appropriate for the type of pearl under consideration.

Among those attributes, luster is the most important differentiator of pearl quality according to jewelers. All factors being equal, however, the larger the pearl the more valuable it is.

Large, perfectly round pearls are rare and highly valued. Teardrop-shaped pearls are often used in pendants. Queen of Italy, Margherita of Savoy , owned one of the most famous collections of natural pearls.

She is wearing a multi-strand choker and a rope of pearls. Muslim "Pearl Trader" painting on mica in India.

Pearls come in eight basic shapes: round, semi-round, button, drop, pear, oval, baroque, circled and double bouldered.

Perfectly round pearls are the rarest and most valuable shape. Semi-rounds are also used in necklaces or in pieces where the shape of the pearl can be disguised to look like it is a perfectly round pearl.

Button pearls are like a slightly flattened round pearl and can also make a necklace, but are more often used in single pendants or earrings where the back half of the pearl is covered, making it look like a larger, rounder pearl.

Drop and pear shaped pearls are sometimes referred to as teardrop pearls and are most often seen in earrings, pendants, or as a center pearl in a necklace.

Baroque pearls have a different appeal; they are often highly irregular with unique and interesting shapes. They are also commonly seen in necklaces.

Circled pearls are characterized by concentric ridges, or rings, around the body of the pearl. In general, cultured pearls are less valuable than natural pearls, whereas imitation pearls have almost no value.

One way that jewelers can determine whether a pearl is cultured or natural is to have a gemlab perform an X-ray examination of the pearl.

If X-rays reveals a nucleus, the pearl is likely a bead-nucleated saltwater pearl. If no nucleus is present, but irregular and small dark inner spots indicating a cavity are visible, combined with concentric rings of organic substance, the pearl is likely a cultured freshwater.

Cultured freshwater pearls can often be confused for natural pearls which present as homogeneous pictures which continuously darken toward the surface of the pearl.

Natural pearls will often show larger cavities where organic matter has dried out and decomposed. There is a special vocabulary used to describe the length of pearl necklaces.

While most other necklaces are simply referred to by their physical measurement, pearl necklaces are named by how low they hang when worn around the neck.

Necklaces can also be classified as uniform, or graduated. In a uniform strand of pearls, all pearls are classified as the same size, but actually fall in a range.

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The unique luster of pearls depends upon the reflection , refraction , and diffraction of light from the translucent layers. The thinner and more numerous the layers in the pearl, the finer the luster.

The iridescence that pearls display is caused by the overlapping of successive layers, which breaks up light falling on the surface.

In addition, pearls especially cultured freshwater pearls can be dyed yellow, green, blue, brown, pink, purple, or black.

The very best pearls have a metallic mirror-like luster. Because pearls are made primarily of calcium carbonate, they can be dissolved in vinegar.

Calcium carbonate is susceptible to even a weak acid solution because the crystals react with the acetic acid in the vinegar to form calcium acetate and carbon dioxide.

Freshwater and saltwater pearls may sometimes look quite similar, but they come from different sources.

Freshwater pearls form in various species of freshwater mussels, family Unionidae , which live in lakes, rivers, ponds and other bodies of fresh water.

These freshwater pearl mussels occur not only in hotter climates, but also in colder more temperate areas such as Scotland where they are protected under law.

Most freshwater cultured pearls sold today come from China. Saltwater pearls grow within pearl oysters, family Pteriidae , which live in oceans.

Saltwater pearl oysters are usually cultivated in protected lagoons or volcanic atolls. Pearls are formed inside the shell of certain mollusks as a defense mechanism against a potentially threatening irritant such as a parasite inside the shell, or an attack from outside that injures the mantle tissue.

The mollusk creates a pearl sac to seal off the irritation. Pearls are thus the result of an immune response analogous in the human body to the capture of an antigen by a phagocyte phagocytosis.

The mollusk's mantle protective membrane deposits layers of calcium carbonate CaCO 3 in the form of the mineral aragonite or a mixture of aragonite and calcite polymorphs with the same chemical formula, but different crystal structures held together by an organic horn-like compound called conchiolin.

The combination of aragonite and conchiolin is called nacre , which makes up mother-of-pearl. The commonly held belief that a grain of sand acts as the irritant is in fact rarely the case.

Typical stimuli include organic material, parasites, or even damage that displaces mantle tissue to another part of the mollusk's body. These small particles or organisms gain entry when the shell valves are open for feeding or respiration.

In cultured pearls, the irritant is typically an introduced piece of the mantle epithelium, with or without a spherical bead beaded or beadless cultured pearls.

It is thought that natural pearls form under a set of accidental conditions when a microscopic intruder or parasite enters a bivalve mollusk and settles inside the shell.

The mollusk, irritated by the intruder, forms a pearl sac of external mantle tissue cells and secretes the calcium carbonate and conchiolin to cover the irritant.

This secretion process is repeated many times, thus producing a pearl. Natural pearls come in many shapes, with perfectly round ones being comparatively rare.

Typically, the build-up of a natural pearl consists of a brown central zone formed by columnar calcium carbonate usually calcite, sometimes columnar aragonite and a yellowish to white outer zone consisting of nacre tabular aragonite.

In a pearl cross-section such as the diagram, these two different materials can be seen. The presence of columnar calcium carbonate rich in organic material indicates juvenile mantle tissue that formed during the early stage of pearl development.

Displaced living cells with a well-defined task may continue to perform their function in their new location, often resulting in a cyst.

Such displacement may occur via an injury. The fragile rim of the shell is exposed and is prone to damage and injury. Crabs, other predators and parasites such as worm larvae may produce traumatic attacks and cause injuries in which some external mantle tissue cells are disconnected from their layer.

Embedded in the conjunctive tissue of the mantle, these cells may survive and form a small pocket in which they continue to secrete calcium carbonate, their natural product.

The pocket is called a pearl sac, and grows with time by cell division. The juvenile mantle tissue cells, according to their stage of growth, secrete columnar calcium carbonate from pearl sac's inner surface.

In time, the pearl sac's external mantle cells proceed to the formation of tabular aragonite. When the transition to nacre secretion occurs, the brown pebble becomes covered with a nacreous coating.

During this process, the pearl sac seems to travel into the shell; however, the sac actually stays in its original relative position the mantle tissue while the shell itself grows.

After a couple of years, a pearl forms and the shell may be found by a lucky pearl fisher. Cultured pearls are the response of the shell to a tissue implant.

A tiny piece of mantle tissue called a graft from a donor shell is transplanted into a recipient shell, causing a pearl sac to form into which the tissue precipitates calcium carbonate.

There are a number of methods for producing cultured pearls: using freshwater or seawater shells, transplanting the graft into the mantle or into the gonad, and adding a spherical bead as a nucleus.

Most saltwater cultured pearls are grown with beads. Most beadless cultured pearls are mantle-grown in freshwater shells in China, and are known as freshwater cultured pearls.

Cultured pearls can be distinguished from natural pearls by X-ray examination. After a bead is inserted into the oyster, it secretes a few layers of nacre around the bead; the resulting cultured pearl can then be harvested in as few as twelve to eighteen months.

When a cultured pearl with a bead nucleus is X-rayed, it reveals a different structure to that of a natural pearl see diagram. A beaded cultured pearl shows a solid center with no concentric growth rings, whereas a natural pearl shows a series of concentric growth rings.

A beadless cultured pearl whether of freshwater or saltwater origin may show growth rings, but also a complex central cavity, witness of the first precipitation of the young pearl sac.

Some imitation pearls also called shell pearls are simply made of mother-of-pearl , coral or conch shell, while others are made from glass and are coated with a solution containing fish scales called essence d'Orient.

Although imitation pearls look the part, they do not have the same weight or smoothness as real pearls, and their luster will also dim greatly.

A well-equipped gem testing laboratory can distinguish natural pearls from cultured pearls by using gemological X-ray equipment to examine the center of a pearl.

With X-rays it is possible to see the growth rings of the pearl, where the layers of calcium carbonate are separated by thin layers of conchiolin.

The differentiation of natural pearls from non-beaded cultured pearls can be very difficult without the use of this X-ray technique.

Natural and cultured pearls can be distinguished from imitation pearls using a microscope. Another method of testing for imitations is to rub two pearls against each other.

Imitation pearls are completely smooth, but natural and cultured pearls are composed of nacre platelets, making both feel slightly gritty.

Fine quality natural pearls are very rare jewels. Their values are determined similarly to those of other precious gems, according to size, shape, color, quality of surface, orient and luster.

Single natural pearls are often sold as collectors' items, or set as centerpieces in unique jewelry. Very few matched strands of natural pearls exist, and those that do often sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars.

The introduction and advance of the cultured pearl hit the pearl industry hard. Pearl dealers publicly disputed the authenticity of these new cultured products, and left many consumers uneasy and confused about their much lower prices.

Essentially, the controversy damaged the images of both natural and cultured pearls. By the s, when a significant number of women in developed countries could afford their own cultured pearl necklace, natural pearls were reduced to a small, exclusive niche in the pearl industry.

Previously, natural pearls were found in many parts of the world. Present day natural pearling is confined mostly to seas off Bahrain.

Australia also has one of the world's last remaining fleets of pearl diving ships. Australian pearl divers dive for south sea pearl oysters to be used in the cultured south sea pearl industry.

The catch of pearl oysters is similar to the numbers of oysters taken during the natural pearl days. Hence significant numbers of natural pearls are still found in the Australian Indian Ocean waters from wild oysters.

X-ray examination is required to positively verify natural pearls found today. Keshi pearls , although they often occur by chance, are not considered natural.

They are a byproduct of the culturing process, and hence do not happen without human intervention. They are quite small, typically only a few millimeters.

Keshi pearls are produced by many different types of marine mollusks and freshwater mussels in China. Keshi pearls are actually a mistake in the cultured pearl seeding process.

In seeding the cultured pearl, a piece of mantle muscle from a sacrificed oyster is placed with a bead of mother of pearl within the oyster. If the piece of mantle should slip off the bead, a pearl forms of baroque shape about the mantle piece which is entirely nacre.

Therefore, a Keshi pearl could be considered superior to cultured pearls with a mother of pearl bead center. In the cultured pearl industry, the resources used to create a mistaken all nacre baroque pearl is a drain on the production of round cultured pearls.

Therefore, they are trying to improve culturing technique so that keshi pearls do not occur. All nacre pearls may one day be limited to natural found pearls.

Tahitian pearls , frequently referred to as black pearls, [18] are highly valued because of their rarity; the culturing process for them dictates a smaller volume output and they can never be mass-produced because, in common with most sea pearls, the oyster can only be nucleated with one pearl at a time, while freshwater mussels are capable of multiple pearl implants.

Before the days of cultured pearls, black pearls were rare and highly valued for the simple reason that white pearl oysters rarely produced naturally black pearls, and black pearl oysters rarely produced any natural pearls at all.

Since the development of pearl culture technology, the black pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera found in Tahiti and many other Pacific islands including the Cook Islands and Fiji are being extensively used for producing cultured pearls.

The rarity of the black cultured pearl is now a "comparative" issue. The black cultured pearl is rare when compared to Chinese freshwater cultured pearls, and Japanese and Chinese akoya cultured pearls, and is more valuable than these pearls.

However, it is more abundant than the South Sea pearl, which is more valuable than the black cultured pearl.

This is simply because the black pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is far more abundant than the elusive, rare, and larger south sea pearl oyster Pinctada maxima , which cannot be found in lagoons, but which must be dived for in a rare number of deep ocean habitats or grown in hatcheries.

Black pearls are very rarely black: they are usually shades of green, purple, aubergine, blue, grey, silver or peacock a mix of several shades, like a peacock's feather.

In the absence of an official definition for the pearl from the black oyster, these pearls are usually referred to as "black pearls". A farm in the Gulf of California , Mexico, is culturing pearls from the black lipped Pinctada mazatlanica oysters and the rainbow lipped Pteria sterna oysters.

Biologically speaking, under the right set of circumstances, almost any shelled mollusk can produce some kind of pearl. However, most of these molluskan pearls have no luster or iridescence.

The great majority of mollusk species produce pearls which are not attractive, and are sometimes not even very durable, such that they usually have no value at all, except perhaps to a scientist or collector, or as a curiosity.

These objects used to be referred to as "calcareous concretions" by some gemologists, even though a malacologist would still consider them to be pearls.

Valueless pearls of this type are sometimes found in edible mussels , edible oysters , escargot snails, and so on. The GIA and CIBJO now simply use the term 'pearl' or, where appropriate, the more descriptive term 'non-nacreous pearl' when referring to such items [24] [25] and, under Federal Trade Commission rules, various mollusk pearls may be referred to as 'pearls', without qualification.

A few species produce pearls that can be of interest as gemstones. These species include the bailer shell Melo , the giant clam Tridacna , various scallop species, Pen shells Pinna , and the Haliotis iris species of abalone.

Pearls of abalone, or paua , are mabe pearls, or blister pearls, unique to New Zealand waters and are commonly referred to as 'blue pearls'. They are admired for their incredible luster and naturally bright vibrant colors that are often compared to opal.

Another example is the conch pearl sometimes referred to simply as the 'pink pearl' , which is found very rarely growing between the mantle and the shell of the queen conch or pink conch, Strombus gigas , a large sea snail or marine gastropod from the Caribbean Sea.

These pearls, which are often pink in color, are a by-product of the conch fishing industry, and the best of them display a shimmering optical effect related to chatoyance known as 'flame structure'.

Somewhat similar gastropod pearls, this time more orange in hue, are again very rarely found in the horse conch Triplofusus papillosus.

The second largest pearl known was found in the Philippines in and is known as the Pearl of Lao Tzu.

It is a naturally occurring, non-nacreous, calcareous concretion pearl from a giant clam. Because it did not grow in a pearl oyster it is not pearly; instead the surface is glossy like porcelain.

The largest known pearl also from a giant clam is the Pearl of Puerto , also found in the Philippines by a fisherman from Puerto Princesa , Palawan Island.

The ancient chronicle Mahavamsa mentions the thriving pearl industry in the port of Oruwella in the Gulf of Mannar in Sri Lanka.

It also records that eight varieties of pearls accompanied Prince Vijaya 's embassy to the Pandyan king as well as king Devanampiya Tissa 's embassy to Emperor Ashoka.

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4 thoughts on “Pearl Umsonst

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