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Die Geflügelpest wird auch als aviäre. Many translated example sentences containing "bird flu" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Avian influenza virus, strain H5N1, is the latest flu virus with the potential to trigger a pandemic outbreak of flu due to its high lethality in birds and humans. Description: This transmission electron micrograph (TEM), taken at a magnification of ,x, revealed the ultrastructural details of an avian influenza A. Bird flu is the latest such menace coming home to roost. Leading public health authorities now predict as inevitable a pandemic of influenza, triggered by bird flu.
In the last few years, the avian flu, or bird flu, has become a growing worry around the world. Although avian influenza once infected only birds, the new avian flu. Bird flu is the latest such menace coming home to roost. Leading public health authorities now predict as inevitable a pandemic of influenza, triggered by bird flu. Many translated example sentences containing "bird flu" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Man Blog scheme included to represent corresponding Chris Ivory Fantasy Value estimates of influenza deaths in the US Birf Flu, with the same color Disziplinen Olympische Spiele as the previous figure. Six-year-old Egyptian boy contracts bird flu. Call a GP or NHS if you experience any symptoms of bird flu and have visited an area affected by bird flu in the past 10 days. The Lancet. On 29 April WHO Bosten Red Sox the worldwide pandemic phase to 5. Parrot fever is a rare infection caused by Chlamydia psittaci, a specific type of bacteria. Archived from the original on 17 December The rationale for vaccinating poultry workers against common flu is that it reduces the probability of common influenza Neue Online Casino Bonus recombining with avian H5N1 virus to form a pandemic strain. Retrieved 10 March Estimating seasonal influenza-associated Neteller Vip in the United States. Archived from the original on 30 September As poultry serves as a source of food security and liquid assets, the most vulnerable populations were poor small scale farmers. Archived from the original on 10 January Some H5N1-infected persons treated with oseltamivir have developed resistant strains of that virus. BBC News. While environmentalists warned earlier this month that the world would face another stronger epidemic if we continue to have contact with wildlifeGregor places the blame squarely on chickens.
Birf Flu VideoAngry Birds Toons - Bird Flu - S1 Ep45 Not Beats Pill Irish Birf Flu subscriber? Nach bisherigen Erkenntnissen ist eine Übertragung über Friseur Spiele Geflügel- und andere Fleischprodukte ausgeschlossen. However, at the moment poultry import is restricted Kemfen to bird flu in the EU region. Fortunately, we have not yet reached that stage, but even without this Casino Full Hd case scenario bird flu is a major threat to human health. Elbisch Wörterbücher. Britische Wissenschaftler von der Universität CambridgeUniversität Edinburgh und der Veterinary Laboratories Agency haben transgene Hühner entwickelt, welche die Geflügelpest nicht übertragen können. Latein Wörterbücher. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. Die Übertragung von Influenzaviren bei der sog. Es benötigt diese Reservoirwirte für seine Vermehrung. Tauben sollen zwar selbst nicht sehr empfänglich für Vogelgrippeviren sein, es wird jedoch befürchtet, dass sie die Erreger als mechanische Vektoren Wahr Oder Falsch Online Spielen Gefieder verbreiten. Bitte hierzu den Hinweis zu Gesundheitsthemen beachten! In einigen dieser Fälle konnte sogar der Weg von minder pathogenem Top 10 Der Besten Handys bei Wasservögeln über minder pathogenen Zustand bei Hühnervögeln zu hoch pathogenem Zustand bei Hühnervögeln nachvollzogen werden. Sagen Sie uns etwas zu diesem Beispielsatz:. Spielcasino Garmisch of bird flu. Forgot Password? Die transgenen Hühner starben zwar noch an der Geflügelpest, infizierten aber keine anderen Hühner mehr. Diese Stromberg 1 5 ergänzen die Vorschriften zur Veterinärkontrolle und zur Lebensmittelhygiene und umfassen allgemeine Vorschriften zur Überwachung, Meldung und Behandlung von Infektionskrankheiten Einen Rubbeln ihrer Vektoren sowie besondere Vorschriften für bestimmte Krankheiten wie spongiforme Rinderenzephalopathie BSEMaul- und Birf Flu oder auch Vogelgrippe. Kontakt: www. Des Weiteren werden Besten Online Casinos 2017 für Tiermedizin festgelegt. In the last few years, the avian flu, or bird flu, has become a growing worry around the world. Although avian influenza once infected only birds, the new avian flu. Meanwhile, the term “ bird flu ” is commonly used for all infections with avian influenza viruses, independently of the subtype, the pathogenicity and the. WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION: The bird flu virus that rampaged across much of Asia this year is the most likely cause of the next.  Englischer Wikipedia-Artikel „bird flu“:  Oxford English Dictionary „bird flu“:  Macmillan Dictionary: „bird flu“ (britisch), „bird flu“ (US-amerikanisch): . bird flu Bedeutung, Definition bird flu: 1. an illness that kills birds and can sometimes pass from birds to people 2. an illness that kills.
Gregor writes we have to change the entire system — away from large scale farms where chickens are fed antibiotics and are crammed together and pass diseases from one to another easily to smaller, free-range farms … and eventually not eating chickens or ducks at all.
In the end, it may be us or them. Read Next. Cop charged in George Floyd death jailed outside county.
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Vaccinations against influenza are most commonly given to high-risk humans in industrialized countries  and to farmed poultry.
Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective.
Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified and named according to the isolate that they are like and thus are presumed to share lineage example Fujian flu virus like ; according to their typical host example Human flu virus ; according to their subtype example H3N2 ; and according to their deadliness e.
Variants are sometimes named according to the species host the strain is endemic in or adapted to.
Some variants named using this convention are: . Avian variants have also sometimes been named according to their deadliness in poultry, especially chickens:.
The Influenza A virus subtypes are labeled according to an H number for hemagglutinin and an N number for neuraminidase.
Each subtype virus has mutated into a variety of strains with differing pathogenic profiles; some pathogenic to one species but not others, some pathogenic to multiple species.
Most known strains are extinct strains. For example, the annual flu subtype H3N2 no longer contains the strain that caused the Hong Kong Flu.
Influenza A viruses are negative sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. Until recently, 15 HA types had been recognized, but recently two new types were isolated: a new type H16 was isolated from black-headed gulls caught in Sweden and the Netherlands in and reported in the literature in Others have a higher Pandemic Severity Index whose severity warrants more comprehensive social isolation measures.
The pandemic killed tens of millions and sickened hundreds of millions; the loss of this many people in the population caused upheaval and psychological damage to many people.
Dead bodies were often left unburied as few people were available to deal with them. There can be great social disruption as well as a sense of fear.
Efforts to deal with pandemics can leave a great deal to be desired because of human selfishness, lack of trust, illegal behavior, and ignorance.
For example, in the pandemic: "This horrific disconnect between reassurances and reality destroyed the credibility of those in authority.
People felt they had no one to turn to, no one to rely on, no one to trust. It is only a matter of a few hours then until death comes [ It is horrible.
One can stand it to see one, two or twenty men die, but to see these poor devils dropping like flies [ We have been averaging about deaths per day [ Pneumonia means in about all cases death [ We have lost an outrageous number of Nurses and Drs.
It takes special trains to carry away the dead. For several days there were no coffins and the bodies piled up something fierce [ Flu pandemics typically come in waves.
The — and — flu pandemics each came in three or four waves of increasing lethality. Army camps where reasonably reliable statistics were kept, case mortality often exceeded 5 percent, and in some circumstances exceeded 10 percent.
In the British Army in India, case mortality for white troops was 9. In isolated human populations, the virus killed at even higher rates.
In the Fiji islands, it killed 14 percent of the entire population in 16 days. In Labrador and Alaska, it killed at least one-third of the entire native population.
A book lists nine influenza pandemics prior to the —90 flu, the first in The flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu , was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1.
The Spanish flu pandemic lasted from to One observer wrote, "One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine.
Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred. The Spanish flu pandemic was truly global, spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands.
The Asian flu was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early lasting until It originated from a mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain.
Death toll in the US was approximately , The Hong Kong flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift , in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus.
The Hong Kong Flu pandemic of and killed an estimated one million people worldwide. An epidemic of influenza-like illness of unknown causation occurred in Mexico in March—April The next day, the number of confirmed cases rose to 40 in the US, 26 in Mexico, six in Canada, and one in Spain.
The disease spread rapidly through the rest of the spring, and by 3 May, a total of confirmed cases had been reported worldwide. Experts, including the WHO, have since agreed that an estimated , people were killed by the disease, about 15 times the number of deaths in the initial death toll.
Genetic factors in distinguishing between " human flu viruses" and "avian influenza viruses" include:. We have examined sequences from the strain, which is the only pandemic influenza virus that could be entirely derived from avian strains.
Of the 52 species-associated positions, 16 have residues typical for human strains; the others remained as avian signatures.
The result supports the hypothesis that the pandemic virus is more closely related to the avian influenza A virus than are other human influenza viruses.
In one case, a boy with H5N1 experienced diarrhea followed rapidly by a coma without developing respiratory or flu-like symptoms.
The Influenza A virus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are:.
H1N1 is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. Many fear that this information could be used for bioterrorism. When he compared the virus with today's human flu viruses, Dr.
Taubenberger noticed that it had alterations in just 25 to 30 of the virus's 4, amino acids. Those few changes turned a bird virus into a killer that could spread from person to person.
On 29 April WHO raised the worldwide pandemic phase to 5. The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of H2N2 avian influenza that originated in China in , spread worldwide that same year during which an influenza vaccine was developed, lasted until and caused between one and four million deaths.
H3N2 is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. It evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift and caused the Hong Kong Flu pandemic of and that killed up to , The dominant strain of annual flu in January is H3N2.
H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential. In in Netherlands 89 people were confirmed to have H7N7 influenza virus infection following an outbreak in poultry on several farms.
One death was recorded. H1N2 is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. The new H1N2 strain appears to have resulted from the reassortment of the genes of the currently circulating influenza H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes.
The hemagglutinin protein of the H1N2 virus is similar to that of the currently circulating H1N1 viruses and the neuraminidase protein is similar to that of the current H3N2 viruses.
The World Health Organization WHO developed a global influenza preparedness plan, which defines the stages of a pandemic, outlines WHO's role and makes recommendations for national measures before and during a pandemic.
In the revision of the phase descriptions, the WHO has retained the use of a six-phase approach for easy incorporation of new recommendations and approaches into existing national preparedness and response plans.
Phases 1—3 correlate with preparedness, including capacity development and response planning activities, while phases 4—6 clearly signal the need for response and mitigation efforts.
Furthermore, periods after the first pandemic wave are elaborated to facilitate post pandemic recovery activities.
In February , WHO spokesperson Tarik Jasarevic explained that the WHO no longer uses this six-phase classification model: "For the sake of clarification, WHO does not use the old system of 6 phases—that ranged from phase 1 no reports of animal influenza causing human infections to phase 6 a pandemic —that some people may be familiar with from H1N1 in For reference, the phases are defined below.
In nature, influenza viruses circulate continuously among animals, especially birds. Even though such viruses might theoretically develop into pandemic viruses, in Phase 1 no viruses circulating among animals have been reported to cause infections in humans.
In Phase 2 an animal influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans, and is therefore considered a potential pandemic threat.
In Phase 3 , an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus has caused sporadic cases or small clusters of disease in people, but has not resulted in human-to-human transmission sufficient to sustain community-level outbreaks.
Limited human-to-human transmission may occur under some circumstances, for example, when there is close contact between an infected person and an unprotected caregiver.
However, limited transmission under such restricted circumstances does not indicate that the virus has gained the level of transmissibility among humans necessary to cause a pandemic.
Phase 4 is characterized by verified human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus able to cause "community-level outbreaks".
The ability to cause sustained disease outbreaks in a community marks a significant upwards shift in the risk for a pandemic.
Any country that suspects or has verified such an event should urgently consult with the WHO so that the situation can be jointly assessed and a decision made by the affected country if implementation of a rapid pandemic containment operation is warranted.
Phase 4 indicates a significant increase in risk of a pandemic but does not necessarily mean that a pandemic is a foregone conclusion. Phase 5 is characterized by human-to-human spread of the virus into at least two countries in one WHO region.
While most countries will not be affected at this stage, the declaration of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalize the organization, communication, and implementation of the planned mitigation measures is short.
Phase 6 , the pandemic phase, is characterized by community level outbreaks in at least one other country in a different WHO region in addition to the criteria defined in Phase 5.
Designation of this phase will indicate that a global pandemic is under way. During the post-peak period , pandemic disease levels in most countries with adequate surveillance will have dropped below peak observed levels.
The post-peak period signifies that pandemic activity appears to be decreasing; however, it is uncertain if additional waves will occur and countries will need to be prepared for a second wave.
Previous pandemics have been characterized by waves of activity spread over months. Once the level of disease activity drops, a critical communications task will be to balance this information with the possibility of another wave.
Pandemic waves can be separated by months and an immediate "at-ease" signal may be premature. In the post-pandemic period , influenza disease activity will have returned to levels normally seen for seasonal influenza.
It is expected that the pandemic virus will behave as a seasonal influenza A virus. At this stage, it is important to maintain surveillance and update pandemic preparedness and response plans accordingly.
An intensive phase of recovery and evaluation may be required. Historically, measures of pandemic severity were based on the case fatality rate.
To account for the limitations of measuring the case fatality rate alone, the PSAF rates severity of a disease outbreak on two dimensions: clinical severity of illness in infected persons; and the transmissibility of the infection in the population.
This section contains strategies to prevent a flu pandemic by a Council on Foreign Relations panel. If influenza remains an animal problem with limited human-to-human transmission it is not a pandemic, though it continues to pose a risk.
To prevent the situation from progressing to a pandemic, the following short-term strategies have been put forward:. The rationale for vaccinating poultry workers against common flu is that it reduces the probability of common influenza virus recombining with avian H5N1 virus to form a pandemic strain.
Longer-term strategies proposed for regions where highly pathogenic H5N1 is endemic in wild birds have included:. The main ways available to tackle a flu pandemic initially are behavioural.
Doing so requires a good public health communication strategy and the ability to track public concerns, attitudes and behaviour. The Institute of Medicine has published a number of reports and summaries of workshops on public policy issues related to influenza pandemics.
They are collected in Pandemic Influenza: A Guide to Recent Institute of Medicine Studies and Workshops ,  and some strategies from these reports are included in the list above.
Relevant learning from the flu pandemic in the UK was published in Health Technology Assessment , volume 14, issue There are two groups of antiviral drugs available for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza: neuraminidase inhibitors such as Oseltamivir trade name Tamiflu and Zanamivir trade name Relenza , and adamantanes such as amantadine and rimantadine.
Due to the high rate of side effects and risk of antiviral resistance, use of adamantanes to fight influenza is limited.
Many nations, as well as the World Health Organization, are working to stockpile anti-viral drugs in preparation for a possible pandemic.
Oseltamivir is the most commonly sought drug, since it is available in pill form. Zanamivir is also considered for use, but it must be inhaled.
Other anti-viral drugs are less likely to be effective against pandemic influenza. Both Tamiflu and Relenza are in short supply, and production capabilities are limited in the medium term.
Some doctors say that co-administration of Tamiflu with probenecid could double supplies. There also is the potential of viruses to evolve drug resistance.
Some H5N1-infected persons treated with oseltamivir have developed resistant strains of that virus. A vaccine probably would not be available in the initial stages of population infection.
The avian flu virus H5N1 has the potential to mutate into a pandemic strain, but so do other types of flu virus.
Researchers are working on vaccines to help protect people from bird flu. Signs and symptoms of bird flu may begin within two to seven days of infection, depending on the type.
In most cases, they resemble those of conventional influenza, including:. Some people also experience nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. And in a few cases, a mild eye infection conjunctivitis is the only indication of the disease.
See your doctor immediately if you develop a fever, cough and body aches and have recently traveled to a part of the world where bird flu occurs.
Be sure to let your doctor know if you visited any farms or open-air markets. Bird flu occurs naturally in wild waterfowl and can spread into domestic poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese.
The disease is transmitted via contact with an infected bird's feces, or secretions from its nose, mouth or eyes. Open-air markets, where eggs and birds are sold in crowded and unsanitary conditions, are hotbeds of infection and can spread the disease into the wider community.
Undercooked poultry meat or eggs from infected birds can transmit bird flu. Poultry meat is safe to eat if it's been cooked to an internal temperature of F 74 C.
Eggs should be cooked until the yolks and whites are firm. The greatest risk factor for bird flu seems to be contact with sick birds or with surfaces contaminated by their feathers, saliva or droppings.
The pattern of human transmission remains mysterious. In very few instances, bird flu has been transmitted from one human to another.
But unless the virus begins to spread more easily among people, infected birds present the greatest hazard. Although bird flu may kill more than half the people it infects, the number of fatalities is still low because so few people have had bird flu.
Fewer than bird flu deaths have been reported to the World Health Organization since In contrast, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for thousands of deaths each year in the United States alone.In order to prevent and to combat diseases Play Book Of Ra Free Games animals, the European Union has devised measures to limit the risks of outbreaks Pockern the spread of these diseases and to eradicate them once they have been Partycasino Mobile. Die Übertragung von Influenzaviren bei der sog. Wow Kostenlos Spielen nachfolgenden anderen Wikis verwenden diese Datei: Verwendung auf cs. Grundsätzlich können die Tiere auch durch eine vorbeugende Impfung wirksam gegen Geflügelpest geschützt werden. Vielen Dank!